Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Hassan Ali Faiz The United Nations, passed the most important international document prohibiting discrimination against women under the name of "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women" on 18 December 1979 over 34 /180 Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly and made acceptance of it mandatory by the member states of this organization. This document is the most important international human rights document that has been developed in order to promote and fulfill women's rights.  Afghanistan joined Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 2003 and managed the implementation of the Convention in 2010 to the Committee's report. Of course Afghanistan has already joined other documents such as the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that emphasis on the equality of genders and rejection of gender-based discriminatory attitudes. Afghanistan's constitution, with consideration that women’s status is high, prohibits any kind of discrimination and distinction between men and women and pays special attention to the status of women and their right to participate in governance, social, political, cultural and economic activities. The government has made many legislative documents in respect to women's rights, and ensures appropriate grounds for the progression of woman's personality and providing her reserved rights. For the first time, the issue of equality of women and men was introduced in the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and then the other human rights conventions one after another endorsed this equality. On 7 November 1967,  the United Nations General Assembly passed’’ Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women "in one preamble and 11 articles and then, in December 1979 " Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women " was passed by the UN General Assembly. The article came into force on September 3, 1981 in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 27 of this Convention. Brief introduction of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Target The aim of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms…

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We & the unsolvable asylum crisis

By Malik Sitez The first part Review on factors of crisis After the end of the Cold War, this is the second time that Europe saw the refugee crisis. The first time after breakup of federal Yugoslavia and its aftermath that caused the Civil War (the early nineties of last century) in this vast territory, and hundreds of thousands of asylum seekers went to Europe Union. At that time, social democracy movements in European Union had extensive authority and conservative nationalist parties were not powerful enough. On the other hand, Europeans needed preparations to resolve the crisis in the aftermath of the Cold War. The other thing that facilitate the resolution of this crisis was that the refugees came from the geography of Europe and European Union as coordinating body felt responsible for resolving the crisis. At that time, European Union provided a great resource for this particular crisis and took policy convergence and integration of the refugees. As a result, all the governments of Western Europe, North and South America in terms of population and resources accepted the Yugoslav refugees. Six years ago the second round of crisis, the revolution in the "Arab Spring" started in 2010 with the expansion of the Syrian civil war and peaked in March 2011. Arab Spring after a year, changed to "winter Arab’’ and instead of becoming a good opportunity for the Middle East it brought crisis. Arab Spring crisis was followed by three civil wars: Yemen's civil war, Libya’s and Syrian civil war. However, the continuing war in Iraq intensified this crisis. Arab Spring caused a political crisis in the government of Egypt. The political crisis in Egypt even affected Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. On the other hand, the religious crisis in the Middle East flared up. Saudi Arabia and Iran by using religious hegemony in the war region of Yemen, Bahrain caused intergovernmental social instability in…

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Killid Magazine

CSHRN publishes a human rights page in Dari and Pashto in the weekly family magazine “Killid”. This magazine has an edition of 25'000 copies, which are available in nearly all of Afghanistan. Through this page, basic human rights concepts are explained in a simple language and different human rights organisations and activists are presented each week. ....................................................................................... دموكراسي و انتخابات حسين سرامد چنانی كه مي‌دانيم، در حكومتهاي دموكراتيك، قدرت، خاستگاه مردمي دارد و بنابر خواست و رضايتِ مردم و از طريقِ قرارداد ميانِ مردم ايجاد مي‌شود؛ يعني زمامداران و صاحبانِ قدرت، در واقع، امانتدارانِ قدرت اند، كه براي مدتِ معيني، در مرجعيتِ استفاده و اِعمالِ قدرت قرار گرفته اند. معين و محدود بودنِ زمانِ حكومتِ زمامداران به اين معناست، كه مردم صلاحيتِ آن را دارند، كه بعد از مدتِ معيني، شخصِ ديگری را امانتدارِ قدرتِ خود بسازند. از اين رو قرار گرفتن در مرجعيتِ رهبري و اعمالِ قدرتِ سياسي، تنها از طريقِ جلب و كسبِ رضايتِ مردم، امكان پذير است و هر كسي كه خواسته باشد در اين مرجع قرار گيرد، بايد موردِ توافق و رضايتِ مردم باشد، در غيرِ آن، از هيچ طريقِ ديگر، امكانِ رسيدن به مرجعيتِ اِعمالِ قدرتِ سياسي، امكان پذير نيست. در نظامهای دموکراتیکِ امروزی، اراده و رضايتِ مردم، از طريقِ انتخابات تبارز مي‌يابد. انتخابات، امكانِ آن را فراهم مي‌سازد، كه مردم فارغ از هرگونه ترس و فشار و نگراني، آزادانه، زمامدارِ موردِ نظرِ خود را برگزينند. مكانيسمِ انتخابات به گونه‌ یي است، كه به صورتِ طبيعي، توافقِ نظرِ اكثريتِ مردم را آشكار مي‌سازد. يعني هركسي مي‌خواهد در مرجعيتِ رهبري و استفاده از قدرتِ سياسي قرار گيرد، بايد توافقِ اكثريتِ مردم را با خود داشته باشد، تا بتواند به مشروعيتِ اِعمالِ قدرت برسد. در واقع، فرضِ انتخابات بر اين است، كه حكومت بايد توسطِ اكثريت، يا نمايندۀ اكثريت، اداره شود؛ زيرا ما ناگزيريم كه…

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Civil Society Role on Strengthening Human Rights

In 8-April-2012 the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) conducted a conference in Mazar province on evaluation of AIHRC 2011 action plan. The conference began by recitation of some versus of Holly Quran. Consequently Mr. Said Mohammad Samey the director of Mazar regional office of AIHRC welcomed the participants. In this conference Mrs. Sima Samar country director of AIHRC, Mr. Ahmad Fahim Hakim deputy of AIHRC, Musa Mahmudi executive director of AIHRC, Abdulahad Farzam director of Bamyan regional office of AIHRC, Ahmad Seyar Lalee representative of Civil Society and Human Rights Network(CSHRN) and Mrs. Homa Alizoy representative of Afghanistan Women Rights Network (AWN) had their own statements. Please read the statement of Mr. Ahmad Seyar lalee the representative of CSHRN. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- By The Name of Powerful and Righteous God Civil Society Role on Strengthening Human Rights Dear all; Availing to the opportunity first at all I would like to thank Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission particularly the organizers of this important event. An especial thanks because of given me this chance to present the viewpoint of Civil Society and Human Rights Network (CSHRN) on the issue of “Civil Society Role in Strengthening Human Rights”. Indispensible role of civil society importantly contributes to perpetuation and promotion of human rights in a society that no one can ignore this important role. Rights of the citizens are one of the most important values of modern civil society, which is weaved to inalienable civil freedoms of citizens. Legal researchers and anthropologists believe that civil society and its significant role builds the legal base of democratic states. Civil society is not only promoting and strengthening human rights values but also strengthening legitimacy of democratic states. These are two main pillars of rule of law and push the states towards transparency and accountability. Another…

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Radio Programme on International Humanitarian Law (IHL)

The radio programme on International Humanitarian Law (IHL) in Afghanistan is debating the role of the international conventions on humanitarian law in the current situation of Afghanistan and their implication for the international and national military operations. The programme consists of two parts: analysis and debate. An international lawyer with expertise in international law prepares an analysis of the situation. Then the moderator of the radio programme asks questions from the guests invited in the program according to this analysis. The main focus of the programme is to deliberate questions regarding the killing of innocent people during military operations, the conditions of prisoners of war, the conditions in the prisons controlled by international military troops in Afghanistan, the role of the international community in monitoring IHL in Afghanistan, the role of the Afghan state and the international community regarding IHL and … The programme is aired once a month by Good Morning Afghanistan with the collaboration of the Civil Society and Human Rights Network. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- "نــــــــگاه ژرف" رشته برنامه های تحلیلی پیرامون گفتمان های ارزشی در پیوند با فرهنگ حقوق بشر ۱۸٫۰۵٫۲۰۱۱ برنامۀ بیست و چهارم چه باید کرد ها پژوهش از ملک ستیز، پژوهشگر امور بین المللی مجری برنامه: حشمت الله رادفر   بیست و چهارمین و واپسین برنامه از مجموعه برنامه های نگاه ژرف به ارزیابی و بررسی موضوعات مطرح شده در برنامه های گذشته ویژه شده است. آقای ملک ستیز پژوهشگر امور بین المللی مهمان ویژه ی این برنامه با مثبت ارزیابی کردن موضوع هایی که در این برنامه ها مورد بحث قرار گرفته، پیشنهاد های مشخصی را در پیوند با رعایت قوانین بشردوستانه بین المللی در افغانستان عنوانی رسانه ها، جامعه مدنی، دولت، طرف های درگیر جنگ (نیرو های بین المللی و نهاد های امنیتی افغانستان) و جامعه بین المللی مطرح کرده اند. با توجه…

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Access to information is a strategic priority for CSHRN

Access to information is one of the main needs of the Afghan society. Widespread corruption, lack of attention to the demands of citizens for information during the past elections, lack of useful, strong, relationship of confidence relationships between Afghan citizens and the Afghan state are the main negative results of this lack of information in Afghanistan. During the past six years, the Civil Society and Human Rights Network (CSHRN) organized a number of dialogues related to access to information and its role in the Afghan society. To work on this issue, CSHRN organized an analytical symposium on access to information on 29 May 2009 in Mazar-e-Sharif. The participants of the symposium discussed access to information and proposed ways on how to implement it in Afghanistan. During the symposium, Afghan intellectuals presented analytical articles, illustrating different perspectives on the role of access to information and democratization. During the symposium, the participants suggested CSHRN to work on a draft law on access to information. Consequently, a working group of four persons was elected to work on a such a draft. The members of the working group are: Mr. Sayeed Mohammad Islami, a famous religious scholar, Mr. Rahim Ibrahim, a professor of journalism at Balkh University, Mr. Taqhi Wahedi, an well known Afghan writer and human rights activist, and Mr. Kawa Sahab, a law expert. The working group in Mazar-e-Sharif elaborated a first draft law on access to information during the eight months following the symposium. Having the first draft law on access to information, CSHRN started to discuss this draft with civil society, state institutions and Afghan intellectuals and academics all over the country. CSHRN has defined five steps in its action plan on dialogues for the law on access to information: 1- Step: The working group on the law…

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Why did CSHRN choose Herat city to work on reducing family violence?

By Malek Sitez This question has been raised many times since CSHRN started to work on organizing a campaign to reduce family violence in Herat city. A lawyer, who is responsible for the ministry of justice in Herat, asked this question during the human rights symposium in Herat. This question is understandable as violence is not only an issue in Herat but in all of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been suffering from domestic violence for many years, in particular since 1992 when the civil war and sectarian conflicts began. To explain the reasons I need to divide my article into two parts, describing the problems as well as the opportunities existing in Herat city regarding family violence. At the end of this article I will draw a picture of the current work of CSHRN in the region. Problems: Islamic fanatics and their bad influence on family violence. Between 1994 and 1996 Herat became one the most important targets of Islamic fundamentalists and Taliban. The Taliban captured Herat city after Qhandahar. During the Taliban period, the people of Herat, above all women and children, badly suffered from a lack of fundamental freedoms. The role of women became a very passive one and man's domination in families reached a very high level. This unbalanced role of men and women turned into an important reason for family violence in Herat. Bad and incorrect interpretation of Islamic values regarding the role of women. The fanatic Taliban and Mujahedin parties misinterpreted Islam for the sake of their strategy and ideology, particularly with regard to the role of women in society. They wanted to show that women were a passive part of the Herat society, destined to serve men. “It is big shame to respect women!” This culture does not only predominate in Herat, but…

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Civil Society and Human Rights Network in partnership with ICCO in Conflict Transformation

By: Ahmad Seyar Lalee During of the two past years CSHRN/ICCO collaborate constructively in the field of conflict transformation. Both institutions organize constructive dialogues with each other concerning the role of civil society and human rights. The main purpose of the cooperation between two partners is to support civil society in strengthening of security, stability and peace in Afghanistan. That is the main reason of designing the cooperation agreement on “ Conflict Transformation ” program. According to the cooperation agreement of CSHRN organized the first consultative seminar amongst civil society organizations on the way of tackling conflict transformation on 26 th of February of 2009. The seminar facilitated and collaborated by international experts of Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) in this seminar the participants decided to work on an educational manual on the theoretical as well as practical components of conflict transformation. According to the seminar a working group of civil society actors was elected to provide the educational manual so- called conflict transformation manual. The working group worked during the past 8 months in the different fields of conflict in Afghanistan the working group also made an analyze on internal and external elements of conflicts in Afghanistan. The working group worked in a close discourses with CSHRN members. CSHRN Executive Secretariat coordinated the activities of the working groups in order to prepare necessary meetings of the working group with Afghan intellectuals, sate institutions, some international organizations and the Afghan national human rights institutions. On December 2009 the working group presented the draft of the educational manual to the second consultative seminar of CSHRN members. The goal of the seminar was to discuss the draft of manual afterwards to approve the draft of the manual. The manual will be printed and used by the civil society and…

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Radio Programme on International Humanitarian Law (IHL)

The radio programme on International Humanitarian Law (IHL) in Afghanistan is debating the role of the international conventions on humanitarian law in the current situation of Afghanistan and their implication for the international and national military operations. The programme consists of two parts: analysis and debate. An international lawyer with expertise in international law prepares an analysis of the situation. Then the moderator of the radio programme asks questions from the guests invited in the program according to this analysis. The main focus of the programme is to deliberate questions regarding the killing of innocent people during military operations, the conditions of prisoners of war, the conditions in the prisons controlled by international military troops in Afghanistan, the role of the international community in monitoring IHL in Afghanistan, the role of the Afghan state and the international community regarding IHL and … The programme is aired once a month by Good Morning Afghanistan with the collaboration of the Civil Society and Human Rights Network. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- "نــــــــگاه ژرف" رشته برنامه های تحلیلی پیرامون گفتمان های ارزشی در پیوند با فرهنگ حقوق بشر ۱۰٫۰۱٫۲۰۱۱ برنامۀ بیست و سوم: "سازمان ملل متحد فهرست سیاه دهشت افگنان را کوتاه تر کرد" پژوهش از ملک ستیز، پژوهشگر امور بین المللی مجری برنامه: حشمت الله رادفر     چندی پیش، سازمان ملل متحد اعلان داشت که فهرست سیاه نام های دهشت افگنان را کوتاه تر کرده است. این تصمیم پس از دادخواهی زیاد دولت های ایالات متحدۀ امریکا، بریتانیا و افغانستان اتخاذ گردیده است. در یک پیامی که در زمینه به نشر رسیده است آمده است که سازمان ملل متحد این تصمیم را برای تحکیم، امنیت و ایجاد فضای صلح آمیز اتخاذ کرده است. سازمان ملل متحد بر بنیاد منشور خویش، یک نهاد جهانی است که بر اصل احترام به ارزش های انسانی و…

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International Humanitarian Law Promotion In Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country that suffered from different kind of conflicts during the past 35 years. Around one million Afghans have been killed and approximately two million others became physically and psychologically disabled. During the war the infrastructure of Afghanistan had been damaged badly that caused about five million Afghans to become refugees and displaced persons. During the war, the conflict parties haven't respected the international humanitarian law; as a result many Afghans became the victims of such phenomenon. After the Taliban collapse, the international military forces organized a lot of operations against the international terrorism in Afghanistan . According to civil society organizations, during the military operations many civilians became the casualties and victims during the war against terrorists in the country. Some international troops in Afghanistan have organized their presence in Afghanistan . They arrested a number of Afghans and detainees. Sometimes the reports show that the prisoners' even innocent civilians have become the victims of torture & inhuman behaviors. The Civil Society & Human Rights Network has decided to promote the culture of international humanitarian law in Afghanistan based on Geneva conventions. The goal of the program is to promote accountability and transparency of the Afghan state and the role of the international actors in the field of international humanitarian law. Based on the project an educational manual on international humanitarian law will be developed trained and promoted in Afghanistan. The educational manual deals with tree components. The first component is thematic issue; the manual will cover the conventions and international mechanisms on international humanitarian law. The second component covers the issue of role and responsibilities of states and international actors in Afghanistan . Here, the role of civil society is also covered by the educational manual. The third component, deals with methodologies of implementation…

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